Automated driving systems (ADS) have the ability to improve safety and convenience in transportation, but could also potentially push certain functions past their operational design domain (ODD), or the area in which a certain feature is designed to function. This study, contributed to by PISC Executive Committee member Flaura K. Winston, suggests that when taking into account possible failures at such edge conditions, engineers and designers must account for new paradigm shifts introduced by automation. It proposes a blend of two classic safety models -- the Swiss Cheese Model and Haddon Matrix -- in order to keep all ADS safe and smoothly running.
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