Conducted by Sumedha Chhatre, George Woody, PISC Senior Scholar David S. Metzger, PhD, and Ravishankar Jayadevappa, this study assessed the association between HIV, mental health conditions, and other intermediate outcomes. It analyzed a cross-sectional study of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS)-Household Component between 1996 and 2016, after which chi-square and logistic regression were used to compare burdens of medical comorbidities and determine associations. The study found that of 218,133,630 persons 18 years or older, 0.18% were HIV-positive. 43% of the HIV group and 19% of the no-HIV group had psychiatric comorbidities, while half of the HIV and psychiatric disorder group had at least one medical comorbidity. Compared to the no-HIV and no-psychiatric comorbidity group, the HIV and psychiatric comorbidity group had highest odds of medical comorbidity. The authors conclude that, "Future research will focus on the mediating effects of social determinants and biological factors on outcomes as quality of life, cost and mortality. This will facilitate a shift away from the single-disease framework and compress morbidity of the aging cohort of HIV-infected persons."