When it comes to long-term smoking cessation, maintained abstinence during the first 24 hours is a major factor in whether an attempt to quit will succeed or not. This study, featuring PISC Senior Scholar Elizabeth D. Nesoff, PhD, MPH, investigated differences in first day abstinence between men and women, particularly within the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that had various smoking prevalences and policies. After analyzing 2008-2012 data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, running adjusted logistic regression models, and conducting a meta-analysis, the study found that one-day relapse prevalence varied across the 12 representative countries. The relapse odds were significantly higher for women in 6 of the countries, with no significant difference in the others. It also found that larger warning labels on cigarette packs correlated with reduced relapse odds among women, leading the authors to conclude that the first day of an attempt to quit smoking is more challenging for women and necessitates targeted interventions.